What is a CVA (company voluntary arrangement)

What is a CVA in Business

What is a CVA in Business? Written by: John A Waller  Consultant. Reviewed: May 27th,2024.

What Does A Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) Mean?

A Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) is an important tool that maintains a viable company in financial diificulties, allowing it to trade without interruption, while generally giving its creditors a better return than an administration while covering the terms of the CVA. In a CVA, a company proposes an agreement to commence repayment of debt owed to creditors in either part or full payment over an agreed period. A company can stay in a company voluntary arrangement CVA for up to 60 months once agreed and the terms of the arrangement maintained.

In recent years CVAs have been used to restructure leases of underperforming properties, most notably in the retail and leisure sectors. CVAs have also been of assistance in compromising unsecured bonds, significant trade or unsecured guarantee liabilities.

IMPORTANT: If you do not meet the agreed payment schedule, any of your creditors can apply to wind up your business.

The process of a CVA became part of the UK rescue culture in 1986. Insolvency act. The UK goverment nelieves it  deals with creditors in a more equitable way.

Often a Company Voluntary Arrangement is a referred to as a Creditors Voluntary Agreement.They are both the same insolvency process.

Restructuring plan

The more recent Restructuring Plan put in place (Part 26A Companies Act 2006) is a court-driven process that has judicial scrutiny of what a company proposes. The court ultimately ruled whether the Restructuring Plan should be sanctioned or otherwise. However, anecdotal evidence based on a limited sample indicates that the associated costs of a Restructuring Plan are considerably higher than the average CVA.

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A Creditors Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) and Directors credibility.

For a CVA to be approved rest on many financial factors. However if the directors credibility is poor the creditors will be worried about carrying on withe the same team.

So ensure you conduct yourselves appropriately when your company is struggling. Be honest with creditors and many will do their best to help without filing for a winding up order.in complex, significant company restructurings.

What happens to shareholders in a Creditors Voluntary Arrangement (CVA)?

Over 50% of shareholders must approve a CVA. In a company with two shareholders, both shareholders must agree to the CVA.

Most of the company’s shareholders can approve the proposals by value. The CVA will be implemented if the company’s creditors approve the proposal, regardless of the shareholder vote.

A CVA remains a legally binding procedure that allows a limited company to:

  • Settle debts by paying only a percentage of the amount owed to creditors of the company;.
  • Come to another agreement with company creditors in the payment of their obligations.

The process is sometimes referred to as a Creditors Voluntary Agreement. They are both in the same insolvency process.

A CVA is part of a company rescue and recovery package insolvency practitioners use to help struggle with limited companies that are viable to continue trading while protecting themselves from creditors.

Is a Creditors Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) fair to Creditors.

Usually yes.

The creditors voluntary arrangement process has been in existence since 1986 and is one of the UK Government’s most recommended methods for rescuing a failing business.  Recently, the Government published a  report  that found the current system to be fair to creditors.

Advantages of a CVA

A CVA process has numerous advantages: –

  • Provides breathing space;
  • You have no need to let customer know you are in a CVA;
  • Cash flow improves. creating further working capital;
  • No public announcement advertised;
  • It can prevent proceedings from being issued against a company;
  • It is flexible, legally binding, and offers protection from creditors;
  • Companies continue to trade with directors, maintaining control;
  • It assures creditors that the CVA will repay some debt;
  • The company directors can restructure a company to improve profitability;
  • The repayment of debt consolidates into a single monthly payment;
  • Lower cost;
  • Suppliers may continue trading with the company.

Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) – Who may propose a CVA?

Directors of the company, appointed company administrators or a liquidator, may propose a CVA. Company creditors, along with shareholders, may though propose a CVA.

Who qualifies for a CVA?

As with an individual and an Indvividual Voluntary Arrangement IVA, a limited company has a similar arrangement. A CVA.

A CVA provides insolvent but viable limited companies with the opportunity to ring-fence the business while arranging to repay its debt without liquidation.

Who can challenge a CVA?

Persons allowed to vote on the proposal can appeal against the CVA by appealing to the Court within 28 days of the date the vote is filed.

CVA or Administration?

Wgich is best CVA V Administration.

  • A CVA preserves a business, usually a better return to creditors than a company administration;
  • In a CVA, a company proposes to repay part or all of the money it owes to its creditors over an agreed period.
  • The insolvency practitioner does not investigate the director’s conduct, as it is with an administration;
  • Administration often affects customer goodwill;
  • Write off a considerable debt as a percentage owed;
  • Your business still trades on;
  • CVA’s allow the company time;
  • Existing contracts are retained;
  • Pay only what your company may sustain;
  • A CVA may reflect the seasonality of your business cash flow;
  • CVA can possibly offset tax liabilities;
  • CVA’S allow the company directors to keep on trading;
  • Directors remain in control in a CVA;
  • Administration has an Insolvency Practitioner controlling the Business;
  • Administration starts a new tax period. Therefore, tax losses do not carry forward to help reduce tax liabilities on gains in the future.

A Formal Agreement

A company voluntary arrangement remains a formal agreement between the failing company and its creditors. The agreement then allows you, as the director, to keep control of the company and continue trading. Therefore, allowing you time to deal with creditors.

Used for Limited Companies registered in England and Wales.

A CVA with or without a moratorium to help distressed companies. May assist your company in avoiding the outcome of statutory demands and winding-up petitions—action by creditors. Moreover, once approved, it removes creditor pressure either by excluding historic debt or allowing you to unblock and remove outdated accumulated debt.

The details of each CVA will then vary depending on the company’s situation. The essence is that the company’s debt, whether in full or part, will be repaid over time from future trading profits (or capital realisations), as cash flow allows. Not all debts are paid, but only an agreed percentage. Unsecured Creditors usually receive more in a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) in the long run than in a Liquidation.

Secured creditors’ security is then not affected.

A CVA does not bind preferential creditors without their authority. Secured creditors can vote only regarding the unsecured part of their claim.

For further expansion of insolvency, limited company rescue and recovery. It is important that company directors understand what is company insolvency in the UK?

Drafting a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA)

Drafting a CVA proposal includes:

    • Why the company’s financial dilemma has happened;
    • The latest information considering the company’s financial position, including details of its assets and liabilities;
    • What the company can afford to pay monthly from the financial projections;
    • How much will it pay a month? Which creditors will receive on a pro-rata basis;
    • The predicted term of the CVA.

Preparing the CVA

  • Preparing a Proposal

Once the directors agree to propose a CVA, they then must choose a licensed insolvency practitioner (IP).to preoape the prosal for the creditors to approve. Once engaged, the IP can then begin collating the financial information required to draft a proposal. The directors need to agree the proposal to be put before the creditors first. Once agreed, the IP can then forward the proposal to all company creditors to be voted on at a creditors meeting.

During the preparation of the proposal and waiting for the meeting. Compant directors can therefore choose to use a Morartorium to protect the company from creditors until the meeting of creditors.

  • The Meeting of Creditors

A meeting inviting all creditors of the company to attend to discuss and vote on the proposal. However, creditors remain unable to attend and may submit a proxy.

  • Report by the appointed IP

Upon agreeing the CVA. The IP assumed the role of Supervisor. They will submit a report of the meeting to all creditors, along with one to the courts. A CVA is a legally binding agreement on both sides. Creditors have 28 days to challenge the arrangement once agreed.

  • Operation of CVA

The company will be required to make the payments as per the agreement to the IP. The creditors’ debt is now with the agreement, and they may take no further recovery action.

However, should the company maintain the payments as agreed, the company shall be wound up and suffer a compulsory liquidation.

Is your struggling company eligible to even propose a CVA?

Many companies present as failing companies, and so fail the opportunity to have a CVA. If your business model shows, it is not viable. Then creditors usually reject the request.

To successfully propose and comply with a CVA, your company needs to have all the following characteristics:

  • Has, at some point, demonstrated a viable, profitable business model. If your model can’t show profitability, then a CVA will not be plausible.
  • When you consider submitting a CVA, your company must be insolvent. To test this is simple. Your company shows as insolvent either using a balance sheet test or cash flow.
  • A viable road to recovery. Creditors want to anticipate future positive cash flow, while demonstrating recovery financially and even more robust management

Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) – Company Directors Trading when in financial difficulty

Company Directors should take extreme care when contemplating trading through financial difficulty, particularly when insolvent. It’s a director’s legal duty to put the interests of creditors of the company before those of the company. Early and in-depth discussions with an experienced insolvency practitioner are essential to explore business recovery options available to secure the interest of creditors.

How much does a CVA cost?

The most significant cost you will have to cover in a company entering the arrangement is the cost of instructing an insolvency practitioner to prepare and submit the CVA proposal to creditors for approval on your behalf. 

Refereed to as nominee’s fee, it will vary depending on the:

  • Work involved preparing a proposal;
  • Details of your case, 
  • Insolvency firm you employ. 

Nominee fees usually range between £5000 and £10000. However, the company’s creditors decide on the cost of supervising the CVA. 

The fees Insolvency Practitioners receive are from the monies paid to creditors in the CVA, as they agreed on them. 

We’ve helped many businesses bypass liquidation and dissolution using a CVA. Contact the team at HBG Advisory for a free, confidential consultation.

CVA’s can be practical solutions for limited companies that need to retain specific certifications or contracts that directors cannot transfer to another company. However, company directors must remember that drawbacks exist with a CVA. For example, a CVA impacts a company’s credit score, potentially affecting companies’ ability to gain future credit and open trade accounts.

Legislation controlling a CVA in the UK

The CVA procedure is set out in the Insolvency Act 1986, Part I (as amended by the Insolvency Act 2000 (IA2000), the Enterprise Act 2002 (EA2002) and the Small Business Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (SBEEA 2015) and the Insolvency (England & Wales) Rules 2016, Part 2.

Does a CVA apply to a single trader?


If you’re a sole trader or self-employed, apply for an Individual Voluntary Arrangement.

When will a CVA be most helpful?

  • Encountering liquidation and wanting to avoid closure;
  • Requires restructuring to be successful;
  • Short term financial stability affected by late payers and bad debts;
  • Viable business with a solid order book, though restrained by short-term cash flow issues;
  • Concerns over liabilities owed to suppliers and their protection;
  • Unable to negotiate repayment plans with creditors;
  • Retain day-to-day control of the company;
  • Capacity to be profitable once creditor pressure is removed.

Is A CVA An Insolvency Procedure?

Yes. Though not a closure insolvency process. The arrangement, however, remains hallowed in insolvency law. (Part 1 of the Insolvency Act 1986).

A CVA is considered an Insolvency Business Rescue procedure. It allows companies breathing space to recover.

    • HMRC Support during Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic.

The HMRC is offering support to UK businesses during the coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic. For further reading, please view HMRC support for contractors during pandemic.

Advantages and disadvantages of a CVA

The advantages of entering A CVA:

      • Means the role of directors does then not change;
      • Then helps you turn around your business;
      • A CVA protects the company from creditor pressure;
      • This removes pressure from HMRC while the CVA prepares. CVA moratorium;
      • Once a CVA is accepted, no investigation takes place into the company or the conduct of the directors; 
      • The amount paid in instalments for up to five years;
      • You may then write off a significant amount of the company’s debts;
      • Improves the flow of cash;
      • Then a legally binding agreement;
      • Helps your business then re-establish relationships with its creditors;
      • The company may terminate employment contracts, leases, and excessive supply contracts, then with no cash cost penalty;
      • Onerous lease may be terminated;
      • Often customers are unaware that the company remains in a CVA. Negative PR issue reduced if any;
      • Tax losses offset against future earnings;
      • No directors conduct report;
      • Directors remain in control;
      • A CVA cost is cheaper than to appoint administrators.

    A potential benefit of a CVA depends on the company’s size. Smaller UK companies experience financial problems and wish to propose a CVA to creditors, holding the opportunity to apply to the Court for a moratorium. A moratorium to help distressed companies then stops any creditor action against the company, while it seeks an agreement with all company creditors to sort their debt situation.

    Medium and large-sized limited companies are not afforded this.

    Not having the ability to have an automatic moratorium limits a CVA. Therefore, CVAs often combine with a company administration, enabling the company to benefit from a moratorium from being in administration.

    The disadvantages of entering into a CVA

        • Does not bind secured lenders;
        • Affect the company’s credit rating;
        • A creditor owed 25% or more has the opportunity to steer the vote and the final terms of CVA;
        • Requires shareholders to agree;
        • The company proposing CVA then needs to generate profits to fund past debt in the CVA proposal.

    CVA or Administration

    A CVA can preserve the business, often producing a better return for creditors than an administration.


    A company administration is a formal procedure in which an insolvency practitioner acts as the administrator and takes control of the company to recover. 

    Business Impact 

        • Administration can affect customers’ goodwill
        • CVAs allow a company to continue to trade

    Business Control

        • Administration Puts an Insolvency Practitioner in Control of the Business
        • CVAs Allow Directors to Keep on Trading


        • Pre-Pack Administration – an option if a company debts too big for a CVA
          • A pre-pack sale of a company involves the sale of all or part of a company’s business and/or assets. This is negotiated and agreed, before an insolvency practitioner (IP) is appointed administrator.
        • CVAs afford the time to sort matters

    What effect does a CVA have on creditors?

    Once confirmed, the CVA binds all the unsecured creditors of a company entitled to vote on the CVA proposal. 

    Consequently, a CVA binds creditors who:

        • Voted against the CVA;
        • Decided not to vote;
        • Did not get the CVA proposal.

    Once bound by a CVA, a creditor is prevented from taking steps against the company that the terms of the CVA legally prohibit, as it is a legally binding contract for both the company and its creditors supervised by the appointed licensed insolvency practitioner. 

    Investigations into Directors Conduct

        • Administration – means an obligatory investigation.
        • CVA’s No director’s investigation

    Tax Liabilities

        • Administration Tax relief can’t be carried forward to Administration. New Tax period created.
        • CVA Can Offset Tax Liabilities

    How Long Does A Company Voluntary Arrangement Process Take?

    Firstly, once your company has passed the test, to ensure the company can survive through a CVA. The directors then prepare and submit a proposal to the company’s creditors collectively, while under the help of a licensed insolvency practitioner. The insolvency practitioner appoints a nominee to your company during the process of executing the CVA.

    Usually, the CVA process takes one to three months to prepare, then appointed and agreed upon. While in between drafting and accepting, the company is protected from any creditor legal action.

    The first stage of achieving a CVA. The insolvency practitioner drafts a CVA for approval by the company’s creditors and the Court. Then the as yet not approved proposal is presented to the Court before the creditors’ meeting.

    Assuming the creditors who voted at the meeting of creditors voted for the CVA. 75% of the company’s creditors (measured as creditors by the value of their debt) are required to approve a CVA. The creditors of the company vote on the CVA, which is the central part of the meeting of the creditors.

    The process of drafting and having the creditors agree to a CVA should take 90 days or less, depending on how complex the proposal is?

    CVA – How long does a Company Voluntary Arrangement process last?

    A CVA lasts between two and five years.

    Usually, a CVA has a term of two to five years. Each CVA has a different term, as each CVA differs. The sooner the company can settle its creditors, the shorter the term. In exceptional cases, a CVA may even extend further than five years.

    The Company Voluntary Arrangement Process? – Period of time to finish?

    As Insolvency practitioners, we issue a report that works out an arrangement covering the amount of debt you can pay and a payment schedule. The term could be over one payment or an extended period, i.e. 60 months. Creditors then vote and agree or disagree with the proposal.

    For the Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) to be approved and put into place, 75% of creditors entitled to vote by value, then need to vote for creditors.

    If approved, the company must keep up with its scheduled payments to creditors. The Insolvency Practitioner monitors the company until the final payment is made, as per the CVA order.

    If the company doesn’t keep to its scheduled payments, then any one of the creditors can apply to wind up the business.

    CVA – How Does A Company Voluntary Arrangement differ from Liquidation?

    A Company Voluntary Arrangement is an arrangement with creditors to pay back outstanding debt at a particular date over an agreed period. Payment is either at 100% or a reduced amount, i.e. 40%. However, a liquidation closes a company, the assets realised, and the money proceeds distributed to creditors.

    Does the company that proposes a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) have the advantage of a legal moratorium?

    Up to the 25th of June 2020, a CVA proposal for a “small company”, the company could secure an interim moratorium, like the moratorium that applies to a company in administration. Notwithstanding its repeal by the Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020, the former moratorium remains no longer, since its repeal introduced the Part A1 moratorium

    No matter how big or small, any company may use the new Part A1 moratorium process instead, though subject to eligibility criteria.

    For further reading, please view ‘applying for a moratorium under CIGA 2020‘.

    A Small Company – How Then Does It Qualify?

    A small company moratorium must then satisfy small company guidelines, where:-

        • Turnover of less than £6.5 m;
        • An administrator not appointed;
        • 50 employees or less;
        • A creditor may then not use enforcement to secure their debt;
        • Administrative receiver not appointed;
        • Assets no higher than £3.26 million on the balance sheet;
        • Moratorium lasts 28 days only;
        • Petition not presented to the company.

    CVA – Director’s Personal Guarantees.

    All personal guarantees made by directors securing debt for the company shall remain in place during a CVA.

    Usually, creditors holding certain guarantees of guarantee comply with the terms of the CVA, because this allows them to recover their money. However, a creditor can become impatient and call in the guarantee.

    CVA – Unfair Prejudice

    Insolvency practitioners may have creditors challenge a CVA, but cite ‘unfair prejudice’.

    SIP 3.2 (Statement of Insolvency Practice) states that insolvency practitioners must be aware that an equitable balance needs to be struck between the interests of the company, a CVA, and its creditors.

    Let HBG Advisory help you arrange a Company Voluntary Arrangement. For further assurance, view the team at HBG Advisory.

    What will happen to a creditor’s winding-up petition if a company’s CVA is approved?

    If the applicant is not a majority creditor and is therefore unable to control the CVA approval vote, is the petition automatically dismissed? Or the Court grants the winding-up order? Thus, the CVA binds all known and unknown secured creditors, so it will be rejected,

    What happens if the company in CVA does not comply with the terms of the CVA?

    The CVA deals with this in most cases. Usually, on the debtor company’s default, the CVA will provide that:

        • The supervisor of the CVA may petition to liquidate the company;
        • Creditors of the company bound by the CVA are no legally restricted by the now failed CVA, allowing them to commence recovery of the outstanding liability;
        • The supervisor of the now defaulted CVA must distribute the company’s assets as part of the settlement of its due obligations.

    Options other than a CVA.

    Suppose your company finds itself insolvent. Once you have consulted a licensed insolvency practitioner, options depend on the individual circumstances of your company financially.

    Many directors consider a CVA to cease creditor pressure and allow your company to sort paying its creditors.

    However, the benefits of a CVA may not be the best process, so opt for another solution.

    UK’s companies have various insolvency solutions. They include:-

    Applying for a Moratorium under CIGA 2020.

    Can a creditor challenge a CVA?

    If a creditor was entitled to notice the CVA proposal and feels unfairly prejudiced by the CVA, the creditor could apply to the court for an order cancelling the CVA. You could challenge a CVA if a material violation occurred in the conduct of the procedure used to determine the CVA proposal. 

    CVAs in the UK National News

    Lately, CVAs are in the national news more than usual. Those entering a CVA are household names and have taken the public by surprise. Indeed, the reality of our economic situation in the United Kingdom has affected well-known high street brands, including LK Bennett and Monsoon.

    It is interesting that using a company voluntary arrangement has not courted controversy as previously experienced. It appears those creditors impacted have resigned themselves to the current situation. However, some creditors have challenged CVAs, and they are still ongoing, for example, Caffe Nero and Monsoon.

    CVAs must be reasonable. Failing which creditors may revolt and challenge the proposal. 

    Get expert financial help

    CONTACT OUR EXPERTS. Meet the Team at HBG Advisory

    CVA – Commercial Rents In the UK.

    Commercial rents plummet again in the UK.

    Since the pandemic, long-standing tenants have again leveraged landlords to reduce rents. Many enter into a CVA and consider other rescue options, like an Administration or a Pre-pack Administration; Closure options include Liquidation.

    Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.


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