READ TIME: 3mins
John A Waller
Reviewed: May 9th, 2021
Liquidation of a Limited Company
Liquidation of a limited company may be voluntarily commenced by the directors.
It is a process to close their limited company with shareholder approval. (also named winding up a company).
The company ceases business and employing individuals. The company no longer exists once removed (‘struck off’) from the companies register at Companies House.
When you liquidate a company, the company assets are realised to pay the debts of the company. Once actioned, if any money is left? Then it is paid to shareholders.
Any monies not distributed to the company’s shareholders by the time the company is removed from the register will be the state’s property.
If you wish to reclaim monies after that? You are therefore required to restore dissolved company.
What Is Liquidation?
Liquidation guides a business to closure while realising its assets to creditors and shareholders. It is an event when a company is insolvent; therefore, it cannot pay its debts when they fall due. As company ceases, assets sold, the Liquidator pays creditors and shareholders, subject to their claims’ priority.
Licensed Insolvency Practitioners act as the appointed Liquidator.
Advice, therefore, is vital to protect creditors’ interests during attempts for business rescue.
If I can’t, afford to pay for a Liquidation.
A liquidation if managed correctly, and at the earliest indication of trouble? Then directors need not pay to liquidate a limited company.
HBG Advisory always aim to ensure a company liquidation remains self-funding. Contact HBG Advisory for Liquidation Advice.
A common misunderstanding is if the court liquidates a company, or liquidates voluntarily, then a director will therefore need to pay out personally to pay the liquidators fees. If detected early, directors act quickly. Then insolvency can usually be paid for by company assets.
The distinction between Liquidation, Bankruptcy and Winding up?
Liquidation and ‘winding-up’ are insolvency terms used in the same circumstances of corporate insolvency. They refer to the liquidation of a limited company.
Bankruptcy is an insolvency term misused. The term refers to individuals and partnerships, insolvency, and not corporate entities (as in the USA).
Can I Liquidate My Limited Company Myself?
Then how do I liquidate my company?
Any Insolvency process requires the appointment of a UK Licensed Insolvency Practitioner.
To merely strike an insolvent company off is illegal.
Liquidate my business – Meaning
The process in the UK to close a Limited company down. Many countries adopt a similar method as the UK, including Australia, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland, United States, Cyprus and Italy.
The sale of company assets, therefore, allows the Liquidator to pay creditors from liquidation proceeds. Liquidation also refers to a compulsory situation as winding-up of the company. Winding-up the affairs though, can be a voluntary reference, as with a creditors voluntary liquidation CVL.
The process then may also describe a company wishing to strip out some of its assets.
Conclusion of a company liquidation means directors, however, must cease using the business name of the former company. HMRC Time To Pay agreements to stop and subject to the Liquidator’s report.
With an insolvent liquidation, however, all company debt stops, and the company ceases to exist. Meanwhile, with a solvent liquidation (MVL); however, the company pays all the company debt and closes.
The final part of company liquidation is to strike the company from the register at companies house.
What are the liquidator duties?
The appointed liquidator is a licensed insolvency practitioner or official receiver who is authorised to carry out the liquidation process.
Once appointed, the take control of all aspects of the limited company and its business.
They then will:
- Realise the assets of the company to then distribute to the creditors of the business;
- Meet deadlines for paperwork, while updating authorities;
- Settle any legal disputes or outstanding contracts;
- Inform the company’s creditors on progress and, where appropriate, involve them in decisions required;
- Pay the costs of liquidation;
- Send to HMRC the final VAT bill;
- Distribute payments to the companies creditors:
- Examine the former directors and compile a report on why the company failed:
- Finally, remove the limited company from the companies house register.
In a creditors’ voluntary liquidation, the liquidator represents the interests of the companies creditors and not the former directors.
Voluntary action by directors is not enforced through court action, as is a compulsory liquidation.
Voluntary liquidation for a liquidation means prompted when your limited company financially may no longer function. Usually, your limited company has severe creditor pressure chasing invoices or other debt outstanding. Perhaps the company has a winding-up order and is days away from a compulsory liquidation? Directors, though, may conclude their company is insolvent and no longer viable.
Therefore, opting for liquidation means you’re using the process to close the company legally by appointing professional licensed help while at all times protecting creditors of the company. For further reading, please view ‘how to close down an insolvent limited company‘.
Once the Insolvency Practitioner (IP) is appointed, your director’s position ceases. You will though still be required to help the liquidator throughout the liquidation process.
What does it cost? – Who Pays?
Cost varies on the size of the company and the issues. Assuming the company is insolvent, a creditor’s voluntary liquidation is therefore the process chosen. Time then re-covers the cost worked on the case. Time is a significant cost factor. Therefore, small limited companies with few assets and closure costs vary from £3,000 to £6,000 plus VAT. That includes an insolvency practitioner’s appointment to assume office as Liquidator, creditors’ meeting, and statement of affairs, together with section 100 reports.
Additionally, statutory costs are then incurred:
- Appraising and selling the assets with third-party RICS valuers;
- Collecting outstanding monies due to the company’s pre liquidation;
- Notifying directors of their duties;
- Redundancies and employees’ claims;
- Resolving disputes and any outstanding contracts;
- Apprising HMRC, Companies House and the Insolvency Service regarding company position;
- Examining transactions leading up to the closure of the company;
- Appraising and selling the assets with third-party RICS valuers.
Cost to liquidate a solvent Limited Company
The cost to liquidate a solvent limited company depends on time costs and numbers of issues. For further guidance, view Members Voluntary Liquidation (MVL).
How do I Liquidate My Limited Company?
Liquidation – Liquidate your Limited Company
Liquidating a limited company is an insolvency process used to close a UK registered company. Various processes exist. Supervised by a licensed insolvency practitioner referred to as the Liquidator.
During the process, the Liquidator appoints independent valuers and agents to sell assets of the company.
The Registered office changes to the Liquidators address.
Creditors complete a proof of debt form, which the Liquidator then proves the debt and then ranks it in order of payment priority.
During the process, the Liquidator has struck the company off the registrar of companies. Therefore, the dissolution is the final part then of the liquidation.
Internal links to guide you:
- Voluntary liquidation of a solvent company
- Voluntary liquidation of an Insolvent Limited Company with Debts;
- Can I liquidate My Own Limited Company;
- Compulsory Liquidation.
Liquidation – Company after Liquidation
A company liquidated, has ceased trading, therefore, removed from companies house register and closed.
Why do companies liquidate?
- Companies enter a form of liquidation to realise its assets. However, the reasons to liquidate depends on if the company is therefore insolvent. Therefore, not able to pay its creditors. Or the company is solvent, though wishes to cease trading and realise assets to pay to shareholders.
Order of paying creditors in a liquidation?
The order of priority creditors of a company is repaid is important. We list below the order creditors rank in liquidation once all the assets are realised and monies collected owing to the company:
- Secured creditors.
- Preferential Creditors; preferential creditors include HMRC & Company Employees. Note though. Effective December 1st 2020. HMRC reacquired its preferential status.
- Fixed and floating charges: secured by a debenture registered at companies house.
- Fixed charge creditors: Usually property and fixed machinery.
- Floating charge creditors:
- Unsecured creditors:
- Connected unsecured creditors:
- Company Shareholders.
What Types? – Closure options?
The company then ceases to exist, upon liquidation. You, as a director, along with shareholders though, may vote your choice of liquidator.
- Members Voluntary Liquidation.MVL – An MVL procedure closes down a solvent limited solvent company. You have the opportunity to appoint your choice of liquidator.
- Compulsory Liquidation. – This type of liquidation you do not have any control. A creditor may petition to wind your limited company up in court; the official receiver appointed.
How do I find the correct Insolvency firm for my company?
HBG Advisory offers directors, direction and results, however, protecting your privacy and remaining confidential.
Our highly experienced team deal with companies in financial distress. We, therefore, set out our plan with directors at the pre-liquidation meeting. Consequently, you will then be aware of your situation and have no surprises later. We have many years of experience dealing with aggrieved creditors and HMRC.
For further help, and you want to speak to someone about:
Liquidating a Limited Company with no assets or money.
Company Directors regularly contact the team at HBG Advisory concerned they cannot fund a liquidation, as their limited company has no assets or money.
Solutions however, exist. If there are redundancy payments due, you may use them to pay the liquidator’s fees – failing, which then the directors may need to pay. However, please contact HBG Advisory, and we’ll explain the costs openly.
Other Options for Insolvent Companies
When you consider liquidating a failing limited company, take the time to compare all the available options. Furthermore, other methods may apply to companies in financial problems, so research options before deciding to liquidate.
Like a company voluntary arrangement (CVA) or company administration, available options provide a viable way for the company to continue trading. However, they remain valuable ways of restructuring a private company and require a licensed practitioner to supervise the process professionally.
What are the Possible Outcomes for Directors?
What are the Liquidation benefits?
Company directors need to ensure, however, not to trade while insolvent. If so, and the company enters liquidation, then it may then impact them personally. Therefore, once appointed, Insolvency Practitioners have a duty to examine previous decisions by the directors before they are appointed liquidator.
Directors are required to ensure that they acted in the best interests of the creditors at all times. To maintain protection from personally liable issues, directors need to keep tight control of the companies’ finances and seek immediate professional help if in doubt.
So understanding the role of the liquidator should help you avoid trading while then insolvent and not taking care of creditors over and above themselves. Failing, they may then face charges of fraudulent or wrongful trading. If proven, then you fall exposed to personal liability of company debts.
Alternative Options for Insolvent Companies
When you consider liquidating a company due to financial problems, take the time to compare all the available options. Other options exist for company directors to consider when struggling financially. In addition, action may be available to companies in financial difficulty, so consider exploring these before closing the business via liquidation.
However, a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) or Administration will provide a viable way for the business to carry on trading. In addition, insolvency procedures, including CVAs and company administration, can be helpful ways of restructuring a private company and require a licensed practitioner to supervise the process professionally.
After an Administrator engaged and appointed to apply for a moratorium. Consequently, allowing the business time and refuge from creditors seeking further legal action.
Please contact the team at HBG Advisory for further clarification on the process of liquidation.