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Creditors Voluntary Arrangement CVA

A CVA prevents legal action by creditors - Return to profitability while maintaining your customers

Company Voluntary Arrangement CVA – What is a CVA?

Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA)

  • Write off a considerable debt as a percentage owed;
  • Your business still trades on;
  • Existing contracts are retained;
  • Pay only what your company may sustain;
  • CVA may reflect the seasonality of your business cash flow.

What is a CVA?

A company voluntary arrangement remains a formal agreement between the failing company and its creditors. The agreement then allows you as the director to keep control of the company and continue trading. Therefore, allowing you time dealing with creditors. Used for Limited Companies registered in England and Wales.

A CVA with or without a moratorium in place may assist your company in avoiding the outcome of statutory demands and winding-up petitions—action by creditors. Once approved, then it removes creditor pressure either by the exclusion of historic debt or allowing you to unblock and remove outdated accumulated debt.

Particulars of each CVA then will differ depending upon the company’s circumstances. The essence that the company’s debt, whether in full or part, will be repaid over some time from the future trading profits (or capital realisations) of the company as cash flow allows. Not all debts are paid, but only an agreed percentage. Unsecured Creditors then usually receive more in a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) in the long term than in a Liquidation.

Secured creditors’ security is then not affected.

A CVA does not bind preferential creditor without their authority. Secured creditors then remain able to vote, though only in respect of the unsecured part of their claim.

For further expansion on insolvency, please read ‘what is company insolvency in the UK?

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A Company Voluntary Arrangement with its creditors, once agreed by 75% of the creditors of the company, it then remains a legally binding agreement. The effect is during preparation and review, the companies creditors may agree to write off a proportion of debt owed with your company’s creditors, therefore reducing the amount repaid over a reasonable period for the company. Normally 60 months.

Is your struggling company eligible to even propose a CVA?

Many companies present as failing companies and so fail the opportunity to have a CVA. If your business model moving forward shows, it is not viable. Then creditors usually reject the request.

To successfully propose and comply with a CVA, your company needs to have all the following characteristics:

  • Has, at some point, demonstrated a viable, profitable business model. If your model can’t show profitability, then a CVA will not be plausible.
  • When you consider submitting a CVA, your company is required to be insolvent. To test this is simple. Your company shows as insolvent either using balance sheet test or Cash flow.
  • A viable road to recovery. Creditors want to anticipate future positive cash flow while demonstrating recovery financially and even more robust management.

Is A CVA An Insolvency Procedure?

Yes. Though not a closure insolvency process. The arrangement, however, remains hallowed in insolvency law. (Part 1 of the Insolvency Act 1986).

A CVA is considered an Insolvency Business Rescue procedure. It allows companies breathing space to recover.

HMRC Support during Coronavirus COVID19 pandemic.

The HMRC are offering support to UK businesses during the coronavirus COVID19 pandemic. For further reading please view’ HMRC support for contractors during the pandemic’.

Advantages and disadvantages of a CVA

The Advantages Of Entering A CVA:

    • means the role of directors does then not change;
    • then helps you turn around your business;
    • A CVA protects the company from creditor pressure;
    • This removes pressure from HMRC while the CVA prepares. CVA moratorium;
    • Once a CVA is accepted, no investigation takes place into the company or the conduct of the directors; 
    • The amount paid in instalments for up to five years;
    • You may then write off a significant level of the company’s debts;
    • improves the flow of cash;
    • Then a legally binding agreement;
    • helps your business then re-establish relationships with its creditors;
    • The company may terminate employment contracts, leases, and excessive supply contracts, then with no cash cost penalty;
    • Onerous lease may be terminated;
    • Often customers are not aware that the company remains in a CVA. Negative PR issue reduced if any;
    • Tax losses offset against future earnings;
    • No directors conduct report;
    • Directors remain in control;
    • A CVA cost is cheaper than to appoint administrators.

A potential benefit of a CVA varies depending on the size of the company. Smaller UK companies experience financial problems and wish to propose a CVA to creditors, holding the opportunity to make an application to the Court for a moratorium. A moratorium then stops any creditor action against the company whilst it seeks an agreement, with all the company creditors to sort their debt situation then.
Medium and large-sized limited companies not afforded this.
Not having the ability to have an automatic moratorium, limits a CVA. Therefore, CVAs often combine with a company administration, enabling the company to benefit from a moratorium from being in administration.

The Disadvantages of entering into a CVA

  • does not bind secured lenders;
  • affect the company’s credit rating;
  • A creditor owed 25%, or more, has the opportunity to steer the vote and the final terms of CVA;
  • requires shareholders to agree;
  • The company proposing CVA then needs to generate profits to fund old debt in CVA proposal.

Administration or Company Voluntary Arrangement?


A company administration is a formal procedure in which an insolvency practitioner acts as the administrator and takes control of the company to bring about a recovery. 


A CVA helps shield your company while providing a greater return, usually to its creditors than perhaps an administration may achieve. The directors, however, remain in charge of the company and remain to trade. 

Business Impact 

  • Administration can affect customers goodwill
  • CVAs allow a company to continue to trade

Business Control

  • Administration Puts an Insolvency Practitioner in Control of the Business
  • CVA’S Allow Directors to Keep on Trading


  • Pre-Pack Administration – an option if company debts too big for a CVA
  • CVAs afford the time to sort matters

Investigations into Directors Conduct

  • Administration –  means an obligatory investigation.
  • CVA’s No director’s investigation

Tax Liabilities

  • Administration Tax relief can’t be carried forward to Administration. New Tax period created.
  • CVA Can Offset Tax Liabilities

How Long Does A Company Voluntary Arrangement Process Take?

Firstly, once your company has then passed the test to ensure the company may survive through a CVA. Then the directors prepare and submit a proposal to the companies creditors collectively while under the help of a licensed insolvency practitioner. The insolvency practitioner appoints a nominee to your company while the process of executing the CVA.

Usually, the CVA process takes one to three months to prepare, then appointed and agreed upon. While in between drafting and having it accepted, the company is protected from any creditor legal action.

The first stage of achieving a CVA. The insolvency practitioner drafts a CVA for approval of the company’s creditors and the Court. Then the as yet not approved proposal is presented to the Court before the creditors’ meeting.

Assuming the creditors who voted, at the meeting of creditors voted for the CVA. 75% of the company creditors (measured as creditors by the value of their debt) required to approve a CVA. The creditors of the company vote on the CVA being the central part of the meeting of the creditors.

The process of drafting and having the creditors agree to a CVA should take 90 days or less depending on how complex the proposal?

CVA – How long does a Company Voluntary Arrangement process last?

A CVA lasts between two and five years.

Usually, a CVA has a term from two to five years. Each CVA has a different term as each CVA differs. The sooner the company can settle its creditors, the shorter the term. In exceptional cases, a CVA may even extend further than five years.

The Company Voluntary Arrangement Process?

As Insolvency practitioners, we issue a report, that works out an arrangement covering the amount of debt you can pay and a payment schedule. The term could be over one payment or an extended period, i.e. 60 months. Creditors then vote and either agree or disagree with the proposal.

For the Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) to get approved and put into place, 75% of creditors entitled to vote by value, then need to vote for Creditors.

If approved, then the company must keep up with its scheduled payments to Creditors. The Insolvency Practitioner monitors the company until the final payment as per the CVA order.

If the company doesn’t keep to its scheduled payments, then any one of the Creditors can apply to wind up the business.

CVA – How Then Does A Company Voluntary Arrangement differ from Liquidation?

A Company Voluntary Arrangement is an arrangement with creditors to pay back outstanding debt at a particular date over an agreed period. Payment is either at 100% or a reduced amount, i.e. 40%. However, a Liquidation closes a company, the assets realised, and the money proceeds distributed to Creditors.

A Small Company – How Then Does It Qualify?

A small company moratorium must satisfy small company guidelines then, where:-

  • Turnover of less than £6.5m;
  • An administrator not appointed;
  • 50 employees or less;
  • A creditor may not then use enforcement to secure their debt;
  • Administrative receiver not appointed;
  • Assets no higher than £3.26 million on the balance sheet;
  • Moratorium lasts for 28 days only;
  • Petition not presented to the company.

CVA – Director’s Personal Guarantees.

All personal guarantees made by directors securing debt for the company then shall remain in place during a CVA.

Usually, creditors holding surety of the guarantee, therefore, adhere to the terms of the CVA because this allows the best outcome of them recovering their money owed. Then a creditor can become impatient, and call in the guarantee.

CVA – Unfair Prejudice

Insolvency practitioners may have creditors challenge a CVA; however, quoting ‘unfair prejudice’.

SIP 3.2 (Statement of Insolvency Practice), states insolvency practitioners, therefore, need to be aware that an equitable balance needs to be struck between the interests of the company requiring a CVA and its creditors.

Let HBG Advisory help you, with arranging a Company Voluntary Arrangement. For further assurance, view the team at HBG Advisory.

What will happen to a creditor’s winding-up petition if a company’s CVA is approved?

If the petitioning creditor is not a majority creditor, therefore unable to manage the CVA approval vote, so the petition automatically will be dismissed? Or the Court grant the winding-up order? Thus, the CVA binds all known and unknown secured creditors, so logically it will be rejected,

Options other than a CVA.

Suppose your company finds itself insolvent. Once you have consulted a licensed insolvency practitioner, options depend on the individual circumstances of your company financially.

Many directors consider a CVA to cease creditor pressure and allow your company to sort paying its creditors.

However, the benefits of a CVA, may not be the best process and so opt for another solution.

Various insolvency solutions exist for UK companies. They include:-

For further reading on a CVA failure, please read CVA Rejection.

Applying for a Moratorium under CIGA

CVAs in the UK National News

Lately, CVAs are in the national news more than usual. Those entering a CVA are household names and have taken the public by surprise. Indeed, the reality of our economic situation in the United Kingdom has affected well-known high street brands including LK Bennett and Monsoon.

It is interesting though that use of a company voluntary arrangement has not courted controversy as previously experienced. It would appear those creditors impacted have resigned themselves to the current situation. However, some creditors have challenged CVAs, and they are still ongoing as exampled with Caffe Nero and Monsoon.

CVAs have to be reasonable. Failing which creditors may revolt and challenge the proposal. 

Get expert financial help

CONTACT OUR EXPERTS. Meet the Team at HBG Advisory

CVA – Commercial Rents In the UK.

Commercial rents plummet again in the UK.

Since the pandemic, landlords are again being leveraged by long-standing tenants to reduce rents. Many enter into a CVA and additionally consider other rescue options like an Administration or a Pre-pack Administration; Closure options include Liquidation.

For the latest news view, please view

” title=”Rents plummeting on the high street”>Polish News

Redundancy payments in a CVA. View redundancy claim.

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